On October 15, 2023, Poland experienced a momentous shift in its political landscape during the parliamentary elections. The significance of this event went beyond the record-high voter turnout, culminating in the end of the eight-year rule of the conservative Law and Justice (PiS) party and the emergence of a new era led by the centrist Civic Platform (PO) under the leadership of Donald Tusk. This article endeavors to comprehensively explore the significant events, outcomes, and potential implications stemming from this pivotal election, drawing insights from various sources.

The backdrop against which the 2023 election unfolded was marked by rising political polarization, economic challenges, and social unrest. Under the leadership of Jarosław Kaczyński, PiS had implemented controversial reforms, touching upon judicial independence, media liberties, and social policies. These moves drew criticism both domestically and internationally, fostering public discontent, especially among urban voters and the younger demographic.

In response to PiS’s policies, the opposition, united under the PO, led by former Prime Minister Donald Tusk, promised a return to moderation and a more inclusive approach to governance. The center-left coalition, including parties like Lewica (Left) and Polska 2050 (Poland 2050), presented a united front against PiS.

The election campaign unfolded amid fierce competition and sharp rhetoric. PiS emphasized its economic achievements, showcasing social welfare programs and increased military spending. However, the party faced allegations of employing state resources for campaigning and manipulating public media, raising concerns about electoral fairness.

The opposition, on the other hand, centered its campaign on restoring democratic norms, reinforcing the rule of law, and addressing social inequalities. Criticisms were also directed at PiS’s management of the COVID-19 pandemic and its perceived role in undermining national unity.

The election results defied expectations, with PiS emerging as the largest single party with 35.6% of the vote but falling short of a majority in both the Sejm and the Senate. This thwarted their ability to form a government independently. The opposition coalition, led by the PO, secured a combined 38.4% of the vote, signaling a substantial consolidation of anti-PiS sentiment. This laid the foundation for a coalition government, ultimately formed by PO, Lewica, Polska 2050, and the Polish People’s Party (PSL), with Donald Tusk assuming the role of Prime Minister in December 2023.

The election results not only rejected PiS’s policies and governance style but also reflected a growing desire for change and moderation among the Polish electorate. The notable voter turnout of 74.38% for the Sejm indicated a robust public engagement in the political process.

The 2023 Polish parliamentary elections carry significant implications for the nation’s future. The end of PiS’s eight-year dominance poses challenges for the new government in addressing the concerns of a divided electorate. The diverse coalition must navigate internal unity and fulfill its promises, particularly on key issues such as judicial reform and social policy. The election results hint at a potential shift in Poland’s political landscape, fostering a more balanced and multi-polar system with increased political competition and compromise. The new government’s approach to international relations, particularly with the European Union, remains uncertain, contrasting with PiS’s clashes. The administration may adopt a more conciliatory approach. Furthermore, the election spotlighted deep social divisions within Polish society, and addressing these rifts and promoting social cohesion will be a long-term challenge for the government.


Polish National Electoral Commission (PKW): https://wybory.gov.pl/

The Warsaw Institute: https://www.euronews.com/2023/10/16/five-things-we-know-so-far-about-poland-election-results

OSCE Parliamentary Assembly: https://www.oscepa.org/en/news-a-media/press-releases/press-2023/more-than-100-osce-pa-observers-to-deploy-to-poland-for-15-october-elections

The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2023/oct/10/the-guardian-view-on-polands-election-democracy-on-the-line

BBC News: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-67123584